Table 2. Univariate associations with NSAID prescription at baseline
CharacteristicOdds ratioa95% CIP-value
Age group, years (versus 18–40)40–592.
Sex (versus male)Female1.221.191.26<0.001
Socioeconomic status, IMD quintile (versus 5, least deprived)<0.001<0.001<0.001
1 (most deprived)1.541.471.61<0.001
CKD (versus no CKD)1.000.941.060.96
CVD (versus no CVD)0.800.760.85<0.001
Heart failure (versus no heart failure)0.510.440.59<0.001
Diabetes (type 1 or 2 versus no diabetes)1.311.261.37<0.001
Hypertension (versus no hypertension)1.441.391.49<0.001
Osteoarthritis (versus no osteoarthritis)2.822.732.91<0.001
Rheumatoid arthritis (versus no rheumatoid arthritis)5.084.715.47<0.001
  • aFor those with multiple categories odd ratios were compared with base groups. CKD = chronic kidney disease. CVD = cardiovascular disease. IMD = Index of Multiple Deprivation. NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.