Table 3. Partially and fully adjusted multi-level mixed effects regression of the odds of shielding status in 57 713 adults aged ≥18 years
Shielding statusPartially adjusted odds ratio 95% CIa P valueFully adjusted odds ratio 95% CIb P value
Age (years)1.06 (1.05 to 1.06)<0.0011.03 (1.03 to 1.04)<0.001
Sex
 Femalerefref
 Male0.74 (0.63 to 0.88)<0.0010.62 (0.52 to 0.75)<0.001
Nursing home resident0.80 (0.39 to 1.65)0.541.07 (0.35 to 3.33)0.90
 BMI
 BMI <30 kg/m2 refref
 Obese >30 kg/m2 1.60 (1.32 to 1.94)<0.0011.32 (1.07 to 1.64)0.01
Smoking status
 Does not smokerefref
 Currently smokes2.45 (1.96 to 3.07)<0.0011.50 (1.16 to 1.94)<0.001
 Formerly smoked2.16 (1.78 to 2.62)<0.0011.68 (1.35 to 2.10)<0.001
Ethnic group
 Whiterefref
 South Asian0.98 (0.67 to 1.42)0.911.37 (0.92 to 2.03)0.12
 Black African2.23 (1.68 to 2.97)<0.0012.78 (2.02 to 3.81)<0.001
 Chinese0.15 (0.02 to 1.07)0.060.23 (0.03 to 1.64)0.14
 Mixed1.11 (0.89 to 1.38)0.361.11 (0.87 to 1.41)0.40
 Other1.13 (0.88 to 1.46)0.331.26 (0.95 to 1.67)0.11
 Non-stated1.80 (0.99 to 3.28)0.062.23 (1.16 to 4.27)0.02
 Missing0.50 (0.33 to 0.75)0.0010.84 (0.54 to 1.30)0.42
IMD quintile (% coded)
 1 (least deprived)ref
 20.94 (0.71 to 1.25)0.680.98 (0.72 to 1.33)0.90
 31.10 (0.83 to 1.44)0.501.16 (0.86 to 1.55)0.33
 41.09 (0.83 to 1.44)0.530.97 (0.72 to 1.31)0.85
 5 (most deprived)1.48 (1.14 to 1.92)0.0031.24 (0.93 to 1.64)0.14
Comorbidities
 Type 2 diabetes1.95 (1.56 to 2.45)<0.0011.39 (1.07 to 1.80)0.01
 HTN1.45 (1.17 to 1.79)0.0011.07 (0.84 to 1.36)0.58
 CKD2.05 (1.58 to 2.67)<0.0011.96 (1.47 to 2.63)<0.001
 CHD1.97 (1.47 to 2.63)<0.0011.21 (0.87 to 1.68)0.27
 Respiratory disease15.16 (12.24 to 18.76)<0.00112.72 (10.00 to 16.18)<0.001
  • BMI = body mass index; IMD = Index of Multiple Deprivation; HTN = hypertension; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CHD = coronary heart disease

  • a Adjusted for age and sex.

  • b Adjusted for all covariates in the table and practice.