Table 4. Partially and fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression of the odds of COVID-19; during 1 February 2020–15 May 2020 in 57 713 adults aged ≥18 years
COVID-19 infectionPartially adjustedhazard ratio 95% CIaFully adjusted hazard ratio 95% CIbFully adjusted P value
Age, years1.03 (1.02 to 1.03)<0.0011.02 (1.01 to 1.02)<0.001
Sex
Female
Male0.68 (0.60 to 0.77)<0.0010.71 (0.62 to 0.82)<0.001
Shielded group2.00 (1.35 to 2.86)<0.0011.52 (1.00 to 2.30)0.048
Nursing home resident9.37 (6.68 to 13.15)<0.0017.05 (4.22 to 11.77)<0.001
BMI
BMI <30 kg/m2 refref
Obese >30 kg/m2 1.50 (1.29 to 1.76)<0.0011.39 (1.18 to 1.63)<0.001
Smoking status
Does not smokerefref
Currently smokes0.90 (0.75 to 1.08)0.240.90 (0.74 to 1.09)0.29
Formerly smoked1.02 (0.87 to 1.19)0.811.10 (0.94 to 1.30)0.24
Ethnic group
Whiterefref
South Asian1.48 (1.14 to 1.93)0.0041.46 (1.10 to 1.93)0.01
Black African2.68 (2.16 to 3.34)<0.0012.52 (1.99 to 3.18)<0.001
Chinese0.91 (0.50 to 1.66)0.751.04 (0.57 to 1.91)0.90
Mixed1.11 (0.92 to 1.33)0.281.12 (0.93 to 1.36)0.24
Other1.75 (1.45 to 2.12)<0.0011.74 (1.42 to 2.13)<0.001
Non-stated2.10 (1.34 to 3.30)0.0011.70 (1.02 to 2.84)0.04
Missing0.88 (0.67 to 1.16)0.360.87 (0.64 to 1.18)0.37
IMD quintile (% coded)
1 (least deprived)refref
21.13 (0.90 to 1.41)0.301.07 (0.85 to 1.34)0.58
31.33 (1.07 to 1.64)0.011.25 (1.01 to 1.56)0.05
41.31 (1.05 to 1.63)0.021.11 (0.88 to 1.40)0.38
5 (most deprived)1.46 (1.17 to 1.81)0.0011.21 (0.97 to 1.53)0.10
Comorbidities
Type 2 diabetes1.63 (1.31 to 2.02)<0.0011.26 (0.99 to 1.60)0.06
HTN1.25 (1.02 to 1.53)0.031.01 (0.81 to 1.26)0.93
CKD1.00 (0.74 to 1.37)0.980.79 (0.57 to 1.11)0.17
CHD1.38 (1.00 to 1.90)0.011.20 (0.85 to 1.69)0.29
Respiratory disease1.68 (1.23 to 2.31)<0.0011.51 (1.06 to 2.16)0.02
  • CHD = coronary heart disease. CKD = chronic kidney disease. HTN = hypertension. IMD = Index of Multiple Deprivation.

  • a Adjusted for age, sex, and practice.

  • b Adjusted for all covariates in the table and practice.