Table 2. Mixed-methods data collection, analysis, and outcomes: implementation matrix adapted from Guetterman et al19
Data typeStudy aimData collection procedureData analysisprocedureTheoretical frameworkProducts or outcomesPoints of integration
QualitativeTo identify the barriers and facilitators to implementing alcohol BIs in general practiceInterviews: patients; clinicians; practice staff; PHN staffInductive thematic codingCFIRRE-AIMPerception of implementation processes from multiple viewpoints (acceptability; adoption; fidelity)Triangulate with NoMAD data to inform implementation process.Compare with practice level data on % alcohol intake recording to look for patterns on increased uptake, or not
QuantitativeIncrease uptake of alcohol BIsRoutine data extraction from practice to PHN (drinker, non-drinker, not recorded; sex; age); PHN to share the amalgamated data with research teamDescriptive statistics every 3 months.Interrupted time-series analysis compared with all practices in PHN catchment. Data will be collected monthlyCFIRRE-AIM% change in patient records with alcohol intake recorded (reach; adoption)Compare with qualitative interview data to understand barriers and facilitators to % change
QuantitativeTo identify the barriers and facilitators to implementing alcohol BIs in general practiceNoMAD survey from practice managers and cliniciansLikert scaleNormalisation Process TheoryMeasure of provider assessment of potential 'normalisation' of new procedure (acceptability; adoption; sustainability)Triangulate with interview data from providers to identify implementation processes
QuantitativeNested SMS study to determine response rates to SMS surveys over 9–12 monthsSMS survey to patients at 3-monthly intervals using 2-way SMS (Qualtrics)% response rate% of questions completed at each time pointNAResponse rate to SMS surveys over timeNA
  • BI = brief intervention. CFIR = Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. NA = not applicable. NoMAD = Normalisation Measure Development. PHN = primary health network. RE-AIM = Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance. SMS = short message service.