Table 3. Summarised results for the multivariable analysis to identify associations between explanatory and outcome variables
LocalpharmacistaPharmacist or nurseaVideoconsultationaEmailaReceive BUPbTake BUPbPOCTb
Adjusted ORc (95% CI)
Sex
Male (reference)1.001.001.001.001.00
Female1.48(1.29 to 1.71)1.46(1.26 to 1.70)0.80(0.70 to 0.91)1.18(1.02 to 1.37)0.64(0.49 to 0.83)
Age , years
<30 (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
30–641.19(0.97 to 1.46)1.03(0.85 to 1.24)0.73(0.55 to 0.97)0.79(0.66 to 0.94)0.49(0.40 to 0.61)1.43(1.12 to 1.82)
≥651.01(0.80 to 1.29)0.75(0.59 to 0.96)0.62(0.44 to 0.88)0.96(0.77 to 1.20)0.51(0.39 to 0.68)1.65(1.16 to 2.35)
Deprivation quintile
1 (most deprived) (reference)1.001.001.00
20.84(0.65 to 1.08)0.86 (0.70 to 1.05)0.80 (0.58 to 1.10)
30.88(0.68 to 1.13)0.83 (0.68 to 1.01)1.28 (0.91 to 1.80)
40.82(0.64 to 1.05)0.87 (0.72 to 1.05)1.11 (0.80 to 1.54)
5 (least deprived)0.99(0.78 to 1.26)0.86 (0.71 to 1.04)1.36 (0.97 to 1.90)
Rurality
Urban settlement >10 000 (reference)1.001.001.00
Town or fringe settlement0.92(0.76 to 1.12)0.96 (0.76 to 1.21)1.02 (0.85 to 1.21)
Village, hamlet, and isolated dwellings1.03(0.85 to 1.24)0.90 (0.73 to 1.10)0.98 (0.83 to 1.16)
Current mental health problem
No (reference)1.001.001.001.00
Yes0.83(0.71 to 0.97)1.24 (1.09 to 1.41)1.03 (0.88 to 1.19)0.94 (0.76 to 1.17)
History of mental illness
No (reference)1.00
Yes1.12(0.97 to 1.30)
Marital status
Not married (reference)1.001.00
Married0.93 (0.76 to 1.15)1.00 (0.85 to 1.18)
Have children
No (reference)1.001.001.001.00
Yes0.82(0.70 to 0.95)1.04 (0.85 to 1.29)1.17 (1.02 to 1.34)1.00 (0.85 to 1.18)
Smoking status
Never smoked (reference)1.001.001.001.00
Previous smoker1.09(0.94 to 1.27)1.08 (0.95 to 1.22)0.92 (0.80 to 1.06)0.99 (0.79 to 1.23)
Current smoker0.83(0.65 to 1.06)1.17 (0.96 to 1.42)0.99 (0.78 to 1.25)0.72 (0.54 to 0.98)
Physical exercise in the past week
None (reference)1.001.001.001.001.00
Some but <1 hour1.26(1.02 to 1.56)0.79 (0.61 to 1.02)0.87 (0.73 to 1.03)1.18 (0.97 to 1.43)1.01 (0.76 to 1.36)
≥1 hour but <3 hours1.20(1.00 to 1.43)1.13 (0.92 to 1.39)0.83 (0.72 to 0.97)0.93 (0.79 to 1.10)1.01 (0.78 to 1.30)
≥3 hours1.21(1.01 to 1.44)1.15 (0.94 to 1.41)0.81 (0.70 to 0.94)0.79 (0.66 to 0.93)1.13 (0.86 to 1.47)
Ever diagnosed with asthma
No (reference)
Yes
Ever diagnosed with DM
No (reference)1.00
Yes1.20 (0.95 to 1.50)
Ever diagnosed with CVD
No (reference)1.001.001.00
Yes0.84(0.56 to 1.26)0.67(0.41 to 1.09)1.19(0.87 to 1.62)
Ever diagnosed with COPD
No (reference)1.00
Yes2.27(1.21 to 4.27)
Consulting frequency
Never (reference)1.001.001.001.00
Less than once a year1.01(0.81 to 1.26)1.25(1.07 to 1.46)0.93(0.78 to 1.11)1.36(1.02 to 1.82)
About once a year0.86(0.66 to 1.12)1.27(1.05 to 1.54)0.71(0.57 to 0.88)1.20(0.87 to 1.66)
Twice or more per year0.88(0.37 to 2.08)1.32(0.75 to 2.33)1.36(0.71 to 2.63)1.34(0.56 to 3.17)
Antibiotic prescribing frequency
Less than once a year (reference)1.001.001.00
Once or more per year0.87(0.69 to 1.10)1.51(1.23 to 1.85)0.58(0.42 to 0.80)
Perception of 1 -week cough
Not serious (reference)1.001.001.00
Serious1.33(1.08 to 1.65)1.61(1.37 to 1.89)0.85(0.70 to 1.02)
Perception of green phlegm for 2 days
Not serious (reference)1.001.00
Serious1.08(0.95 to 1.23)0.89(0.71 to 1.11)
Perception of noisy and wheezy chest
Not serious (reference)1.001.001.00
Serious0.85(0.72 to 1.00)1.24(1.09 to 1.41)0.86(0.69 1.07)
  • aIn favour of consultation; bAgree with use in primary care consultation; cAdjusted for all other factors in the model. DM = diabetes mellitus; CVD = cardiovascular disease; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.