Table 4. Multivariable analysis with characteristics of patients significant in univariate analysis in the ONS users and high ONS users groups
CharacteristicsUnadjustedaAdjustedb
95% CI95% CI
LowerUpperLowerUpper
ORPPOR
Patient sex
Male1.0c 1.0c
Female0.70.0230.601.00.99301.00.71.4
Patient age category
≥18 to 44 years2.91.94.52.51.54.3
≥45 to 64 years3.12.24.32.51.73.7
≥65 years1.0c <0.001<0.0011.0c
Type of ONS d
ONS type 11.0c 1.0c
ONS type 20.5<0.0010.40.6<0.0010.60.40.8
Patient p olypharmacy
No polypharmacy (<5 drugs)1.0c 1.0c
Polypharmacy (≥5 drugs)0.70.50.90.80.61.2
Excessive polypharmacy (≥10)0.60.0100.50.90.5500.80.51.3
Patient CNS drug dispensed e
No CNS drug1.0c 1.0c
CNS drug (<5 drugs)1.20.91.71.20.91.8
CNS polypharmacy or excessive polypharmacy (≥5 drugs)2.50.0021.54.30.0292.41.34.4
Pati ent circulatory drug dispensed f
No circulatory drug1.0c 1.0c
Circulatory drug (<5 drugs)0.60.50.81.00.71.4
Circulatory polypharmacy or excessive polypharmacy (≥5 drugs)0.5<0.0010.30.70.9600.90.61.5
  • aBinary logistic regression carried out with each variable individually as predictor of dependent variables. bBinary logistic regression carried out with full model adjusted for all variables as predictors of dependent variables. cIndicates reference group d This variable only includes those patients who were on one ONS type, ONS type 1 includes the two most common type of ONS as per Figure 2 (high energy and very high energy standard protein sip feed with or without fibre), ONS type 2 includes the other ONS types represented in Figure 2 (high energy shots, high protein sip feed, high energy semi-solid, textured modified high energy/high protein sip feeds). eCNS drugs include drugs to treat anxiety, insomnia, psychoses, mood disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, epilepsy and seizures, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and narcolepsy. fCirculatory medication include drugs to treat hypertension; oedema; heart failure; arrhythmias; angina; prevent myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular events; hypercholesterolaemia; vascular diseases such as Raynaud's and pulmonary arterial hypertension; haemorrhage; anaemia and neutropenia.

  • CI = confidence interval. CNS = central nervous system. ONS = oral nutritional supplements. OR = odds ratio.