Table 1. Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaExclusion code
English articlesNon-English articlesEng
Adults (aged ≥18 years)Study population aged <18 yearsAge
Primary care or communitySecondary care or hospitalNot PC
Chronic conditions, chronic illness, chronic disease, non-communicable disease (NCD)Acute conditionsAcute
Study type: systematic reviews, meta-analysis, RCTs, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series, controlled before-and-after studiesStudy type: qualitative studies, populations studies, surveys, cross sectional, uncontrolled before-and-after studies (cohort)Study
Education and training of primary care health professionals for patient education in promoting change, behaviour change, lifestyle change, patient engagement, patient empowerment, motivational skills, patient collaboration, patient adherence and compliance, patient self-management, decision making, and patient problem-solvingNot education or training of healthcare professionalsInt
Not primary care health professionalsPop
Primary outcome measures not includedOut
Direct patient education onlyEdu
Continuing education, CME, lifelong learning, or evidence-based medicineGuideline adherence, clinical performance (no educational component involved)Guid
All studies published from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2018Any article outside this timeframeDate
Organisational interventionsOrg
Financial changes and incentivesFi
Regulatory interventionsReg
  • CME = continuing medical education. PC = primary care. RCTs = randomised controlled trials.