Table 2. Approaches to urine sample collection in primary care
Embedded Image Evidence based Use clean catch methodAcknowledge can be time-consumingWant to avoid sample contamination
Convenience Use urine bag methodConvenience for parent and clinicianAware of sample contamination
Pragmatic Prefer clean catchUse urine bags sometimesDepends on clinical circumstances
Rural or remote Prefer clean catchNot close to hospital servicesPerform catheterisation or SPA whenrequired
  • SPA = suprapubic aspiration.