Table 2. Characteristics of included pharmacist-led studies
Author,year, countryDesign N Duration, monthsDetails of interventionOutcomes
Goldfien et al, 2014US17 Observ10011Pharmacist+ rheumatologist provided education by phone; employed standard gout medication to lower SU levelsSU levels ≤6 mg/dl achieved and maintained at least 3 months for 78/95 patients
Goldfien et al, 2016US16 RCT776Telephone-based programme to manage SU. Implementation of protocol, adjusting standard gout management; patient adherence monitoredSU levels at ≤6.0 mg/dl at 26 weeks in 35% of intervention cf 13% control group
Whiteman et al, 2018UK31 Observ [Abstract]5223Education about gout and its treatment. Offered ongoing monitoring until SU at target38/52 patients discharged from service. Average SU level decreased from 7.7 mg/dl to 4.9 mg/dl
Mikuls et al, 2019US32 RCT clustered1,41224Randomised by site. Intervention telephone interactive voice recognition system to assess adherence, encourage SU and other lab monitoring, provide patient-focused gout education, and adjust allopurinol dosing versus usual careBetter adherence to ULT 50% cf 37% usual care. SU <6 mg/dl intervention 30% cf 15% usual care
Huang et al, 2019US18 QIP361219 referred patients received pharmacist education and ULT titration programme cf with 28 non-referredSU improved intervention (8.8–6.1 mg/dl for intervention cf 7.6 to 6.8 mg/dl for usual care. 32% intervention and 25% usual care achieved target
  • Cf = Compare. Observ = observational. Qual = qualitative. QIP = quality improvement project. RCT = randomised controlled trial. SU = serum urate. ULT = urate lowering therapy. Vs = versus. Wk = week.