Table 1. Characteristics of included nurse-led studies
Author,year, countryDesign N Duration, monthsDetails of interventionOutcomes
Murphy and Schumacher, 1984US24 RCT6324Randomly assigned to four educational groups:A: education by rheumatology fellowB: pamphlet on goutC: intensive education by nurseD: monthly telephone call from nurseMean SU levels:No change A & B (initial: 8.3 mg/dl to final: 8.2 mg/dl). Improved C & D (initial: 8.8 mg/dl to final: 6.4 mg/dl)
Lim et al, 2012Singapore21 QIP12612Comprehensive patient education, enhanced telephone access for nurses to call patients, reappointments and refills, increased frequency of visits until target SU concentration achievedMedian time to achieve target SU (<6 mg/dl) was 36.9 weeks with 72% of patients achieving that by 12 months
Rees et al, 2013UK25 Observ10612Education, individualised lifestyle advice, appropriate ULT92% achieved therapeutic target (<6 mg/dl after 1 year)
Abhishek et al, 2017UK12 Observ7560Questionnaire sent to 100 patients with gout from previous study25 to examine adherence of ULT by nurse-led care5-year persistence on ULT was 91%. Of these, 85% had SU level <5 mg/dl after 5 years
Yoo et al, 2017South Korea28 RCT[Abstract]1003Patient education randomly assigned to education and non-education groups. Intervention group received nurse-led face-to-face education. Both groups: information leaflet, and ULTIncreased knowledge, improved drug compliance, target SU decreased (5.73 cf 6.08 mg/dl) in education versus non-education group
Tay et al, 2017Singapore27 Observ [Abstract]1009Telemedicine bundle: nurse education, six 2-weekly phone calls, hotline; 6-weekly lab tests and couriered ULTMedian time to achieve target SU levels 19 weeks, no hospitalisation gout flares
Doherty et al, 2018UK14 RCT51724Randomly assigned to nurse-led care educating patients and involved in management decisions or usual care by GPsNurse versus GP groups at 2 years:SU levels <6 mg/dl 95% cf 29%. 88% cf 16% SU <5 mg/dl.Presence of tophi r3% cf 11% (P<0.0001)Risk of flares 8% cf 25% (P<0.0001)Quality of life SF-36 physical component 41 cf 37 (P<0.0001)
Latif et al, 2019UK19 Qual304Participants involved in observational study25 interviewed to explore patient perception of nurse-led careNurse-led cf to GP care reported improved knowledge and understanding of ULT, leading to long-term adherence to ULT by patients
  • Cf = Compare. Observ = observational. Qual = qualitative. QIP = quality improvement project. RCT = randomised controlled trial. SU = serum urate. ULT = urate lowering therapy. Vs = versus. Wk = week.