Univariable analysis | Full model | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

OR (95% CI) |
P value | OR (95% CI) |
P value | |

Patient demographics
| ||||

% males^{a}
| 0.98 (0.97 to 0.98) | <0.001 | 1.00 (0.99 to 1.00) | 0.708 |

% aged ≥65 years^{a}
| 0.99 (0.99 to 1.00) | <0.001 | 0.98 (0.97 to 0.99) | <0.001 |

Ratio 85:65 | 1.05 (1.05 to 1.06) | <0.001 | 1.05 (1.05 to 1.06) | <0.001 |

Practice population size | 1.00 (1.00 to 1.01) | <0.001 | 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00) | 0.915 |

Disease prevalence
| ||||

AF | 1.00 (1.00 to 1.01) | <0.001 | 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) | 0.001 |

CHD | 0.99 (0.98 to 0.99) | <0.001 | 1.00 (0.99 to 1.01) | 0.946 |

CKD | 0.99 (0.99 to 0.99) | <0.001 | 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00) | 0.694 |

DM | 0.93 (0.93 to 0.94) | <0.001 | 0.94 (0.93 to 0.94) | <0.001 |

GP
Patient Survey
| ||||

Experience | 1.01 (1.01 to 1.02) | <0.001 | 1.00 (1.00 to 1.01) | 0.628 |

Preferred GP | 1.01 (1.01 to 1.01) | <0.001 | 1.01 (1.01 to 1.01) | <0.001 |

Trust | 1.01 (1.00 to 1.01) | <0.001 | 1.00 (0.99 to 1.00) | 0.087 |

Total QOF score^{b}
| 1.00 (1.00 to 1.01) | 0.060 | 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00) | 0.771 |

CCG variance
| ||||

95% mid-range^{c}
| 1.97 (1.74 to 2.28) | <0.001 | 1.99 (1.76 to 2.31) | <0.001 |

Multilevel logistic regression models with a binomial distribution were used, with CCG included as a random effect to account for clustering. All measures were standardised (using sample mean values and SDs), and OR represent the odds of a patient dispensed an anticoagulant (DOAC and warfarin) given a DOAC, for a unit increase in the exposure of interest. DOACs include dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban

^{a}Denominator data used was practice-list size in January–March 2017.^{b}Total QOF score is total QOF points achieved as a percentage of all achievable points (max 559) for 2015–2016.^{c}Calculated from the variance of the random effect (σ2) and is given by e2 ×1.96×σ and represents the odds ratio comparing a practice at the 2.5th percentile of the distribution of practices to one at the 97.5th percentile- AF
- atrial fibrillation
- CCG
- clinical commissioning group
- CHD
- coronary heart disease
- CI
- confidence intervals
- CKD
- chronic kidney disease
- DM
- diabetes mellitus
- DOAC
- direct oral anticoagulant
- GP
- general practitioner
- HYP
- hypertension
- OD
- odd ratio
- QOF
- Quality and Outcomes Framework
- SD
- standard deviation