Table 1. Characteristics of included studies
Author, yearCountry study conductedStudy designParticipantsQuality assessment(criteria met)
PatientsPrimary care staff
Atherton et al, 201820 UKEthnographic, case study3945High 5/5
Brant et al, 201611 UKCross-sectional, mixed methodsN/A319High 5/5
Glaser et al, 201036 USCross sectional Survey737N/AHigh 4/5 — derivation of findings from data not ideal due to length survey, subsequently final survey omits several questions
Hatton et al, 201837 USCross-sectional survey57 (26 VC, 31F2F)N/AHigh 4/5 — limited generalisability of patient population.
Polinski et al, 201638 USCross-sectional survey1734N/AHigh 5/5
Powell et al, 201739 USQualitative interviews19N/AHigh 5/5
Stahl and Dixon 201040 USRandomised control trial1754High 4/5 – no blinding carried out
  • F2F = face to face. N/A = not applicable. VC = video consultation.