Table 4. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with differences in composite outcome score
Bivariate modelsMultivariate modela
Δ Outcome (95% CI)b P value Δ Outcome ( 95% CI) b P value
Female -7.3 (-13.3 to -1.3)0.02-13.8 (-18.9 to -8.7)<0.001
Age, years 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)0.020.0 (-0.5 to 0.5)0.99
Ethnicity: Europeanreferencereference
Indigenous-0.8 (-10.9 to 9.3)0.87-4.9 (-12.2 to 2.5)0.20
Other7.1 (-9.4 to 23.7)0.406.1 (-7.0 to 19.1)0.36
Citizenship: Canadianreferencereference
Non-Canadian10.9 (2.4 to 19.4)0.015.3 (-5.3 to 15.9)0.33
Education: ≤High schoolreferencereference
Some college/university12.1 (3.7 to 20.5)0.00513.7 (0.3 to 27.0)0.04
Graduate degree18.0 (11.6 to 24.4)<0.00121.6 (6.1 to 37.0)0.006
Employment: Fully employedreferencereference
Retired2.8 (-2.5 to 8.2)0.30-3.7 (-11.0 to 3.5)0.31
Other0.1 (-5.9 to 6.0)0.98-2.1 (-9.9 to 5.6)0.59
Relationship: Partneredreferencereference
Non-partnered3.0 (-3.8 to 9.8)0.39-2.2 (-9.1 to 4.6)0.52
Income: $0–$60 000referencereference
$60 000–$100 000-2.3 (-9.0 to 4.5)0.52-7.0 (-17.0 to 2.9)0.16
≥$100 000-6.1 (-12.4 to 0.1)0.06-11.5 (-20.7to -2.4)0.01
Smoking status: Non-smokerreferencereference
Smoker-16.7 (-23.7 to -9.7)<0.001-8.8 (-17.5 to -0.1)0.05
Alcohol consumption: Neverreferencereference
Less than weekly9.6 (1.9 to 17.4)0.023.4 (-3.5 to 10.3)0.34
Weekly or more-1.2 (-6.5 to 4.2)0.68-11.5 (-22.3 to -0.6)0.04
Exercise: <150 minutes/weekreferencereference
>150 minutes/week-1.3 (-8.5 to 5.9)0.73-1.2 (-7.8 to 5.5)0.73
  • CI = confidence intervals. aMultivariate models contain all listed variables, plus variables for study site. b Data are difference in composite outcome relative to the reference condition for the variable (for example, women achieved a mean of 7.3% less than men on the unadjusted analysis, and 13.8% less than men on the composite outcome after adjustment for the effect of other covariates)