Table 1. Summary of all data extraction results
StudyType ofinterventionControl groupPopulationLength offollow-upROBINS-IOutcomeEffect
Vaccination effectiveness
Michiels et al 12 Vaccination (TIV):n = 77 in 2002–2003;n = 100 in 2003–2004No intervention:n = 45 in 2002–2003;n = 40 in 2003–2004GPs working in FlandersInfluenza season 2002–2003; and 2003–2004ModerateSII by swab test, RTI, SII antibodies (4-fold hemagglutination inhibition antibody titre rise (taken once after the vaccination period but before the infection period; and taken once after the infection period) SII: 8.6% in intervention vs 14.7% in control (RR 0.59; 95% CI = 0.28 to 1.24).
SII for ≤ 30-year-old GP (OR 0.1; 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.75)
RTI: 52.5% in intervention vs 53.3% in control (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27)
RTI for ≤ 30-year-old GP (aOR 0.35; 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.96)
RTI and SII antibody rise: 5.3% in intervention vs 18.8% in control (RR 0.28; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.75)
RTI and SII and/or SII antibody rise: 11.6% in intervention vs 26.1% in control (RR 0.44; 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.88)
RTI and SII and/or SII antibody rise for ≤30-year-old GP: aOR 0.1; 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.98
Low basic antibodies against SII predictive of SII: aOR 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.89
Presence of influenza cases in the family predictive of SII: aOR 9.24; 95% CI = 2.91 to 29
Surface disinfection
Pappas et al 23 Samples on toys in ‘sick’ waiting room in GP practice before and after disinfection, samples on toys in new toy bagSamples on toys in ‘well’ waiting rooms5-provider (4 GPs and 1 nurse) general pediatric practice in northern VirginiaRespiratory virus season, 5 control datesHighPicornavirus; influenza A and B; RSV Viral RNA detected on n = 11/52 (21%) of toys sampled:
n = 10 picoronavirus, n = 1 influenza B.
Viral RNA detected on n = 3/10 (30%) from the new toy bag: n = 6/30 (20%) in ‘sick’ waiting room; n = 2/12 (17%) in ‘well’ waiting room.
Before cleaning the ‘ sick ’ waiting room: n = 6/15 (40%) positive for picoronaviral RNA. After cleaning: n = 4/15 (27%); thus, RNA removed from n = 4/6 of the original positive.
RNA was not transferred to the fingers of the investigator who handled theses toys.
  • aOR = adjusted odds ratio. CI = confidence intervals. OR = odds ratio. RNA = ribonucleic acid. RR = relative risk. RSV = respiratory synctial virus. RTI = respiratory tract infection. SII = seasonal influenza infection. TIV = trivalent influenza vaccination.