Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of all participants included in the analyses
CharacteristicLow activity group, n (%)
(n = 23)
High activity group, n (%)
(n = 21)
P valuea
Patient, n1514
HCP, n87
SexNSb
Male12 (52)15 (71)
Female11 (48)6 (29)
Mean age, years58.6 (8.9)56.9 (12.6)NS
Patient mean age, years (range)61.7 (44–70)63.6 (50–71)NS
HCP mean age, years (range)52.8 (41–66)43.6 (31–61)NS
Marital statusNSb
Single/ widowed/ divorced9 (39)6 (29)
Married/ cohabiting14 (61)15 (71)
Highest educational attainmentNSb
Up to A-Level or equivalent10 (43)8 (38)
First degree or higher degree13 (57)13 (62)
Mean height, years (SD)1.72 (0.11)1.76 (0.08)NS
Mean weight, kg (SD)81.1 (16.7)79.2 (14.0)NS
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD)27.2 (4.2)25.6 (3.8)NS
Mean waist circumference, cm (SD)92.6 (12.6)90.6 (13.4)NS
Physical activity dimension
Mean physical activity level, PAL ratio (SD)c1.66 (0.25)1.96 (0.26)<0.001
Mean sedentary time, % waking day (SD)d75.8 (7.3)61.8 (10.1)<0.001
Mean daily moderate activity, minutes (SD)e84.1 (30.9)171.3 (63.9)<0.001
Mean MVPA bouts, minutes/week (SD)f240.4 (148.2)643.3 (327.9)<0.001
Mean vigorous activity, minutes/week (SD)g40.7 (55.6)182.7 (166.4)<0.001
  • aDifferences between groups tested using independent t-test unless specified. bTested using Pearson χ2 test for proportional differences. cPhysical activity level: average total daily energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate (kcal/day). dSedentary time: percentage of waking day spent under 1.5 METs (480 minutes of sleep was assumed and subtracted from the total). eDaily moderate activity: average number of single minutes of moderate activity accumulated in 24 hours (≥3 METs, <6 METs). fMVPA bouts: all activity greater than 3 METs sustained for at least a period of 10 minutes and accumulated across the week. gVigorous activity: all the minutes of vigorous activity (>6 METs) accumulated over the monitored week.

  • METs = metabolic equivelent of task. MVPA = moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity. HCP = healthcare professional. NS = not significantly different between groups. PAL = physical activity level.