Box 1. Logic model of an integrated intervention
Intervention inputsIntervention process and actionsIntended
Process changeOutputsHealth outcomes
  • Case management desk-guide & counselling tool

  • Training of doctors and allied staff (on full care package)

  • Supplement drugs and supplies (for example, peak flow meter)

  • Recording formsa

  • Screen and diagnosea

  • Prescribe and/or dispense asthma and/or COPD drugs

  • Counsel on lung condition; also smoking cessation (if applicable)

  • Follow up care, including retrieval

Providers practise programme protocols to:
  • screen, diagnose, treat, counsel, follow up, and report as per programme protocol

  • attend follow-up visits

  • adhere to treatment

  • cease smoking (if applicable)

Patient are:
  • screened and diagnosed as per programme protocol

  • prescribed and/or dispensed correct drug and dose

  • counselled for smoking cessation

  • followed-up and treated for continued care

Asthma control and BODE index change in COPD patients
  • aThese inputs and practices for screening, diagnosis, and recording were the same in intervention and control arms to ensure comparing ‘like with like’ asthma and COPD patients.

  • BODE index = Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.