Table 2. Model parameters, including costs and treatment pathways, used in the model
ParameterTypeMean cost, £Source
Fosfomycin 3 g oncePrescription4.86Profile Pharmaa
Nitrofurantoin 50 mg four times a day for 7 daysPrescription13.93 BNF 27
Nitrofurantoin (MR) 100 mg twice daily for 7 daysPrescription9.50
Nitrofurantoin 100 mg four times a day for 3 daysPrescription8.14
Pivmecillinam 200 mg three times a day for 7 daysPrescription9.45
Pivmecillinam 400 mg twice daily for 3 daysPrescription5.40
Pivmecillinam, 200 mg twice daily for 7 daysPrescription6.30
Trimethoprim 200 mg twice daily for 7 daysPrescription1.00
Trimethoprim 200 mg oncePrescription0.07
PyelonephritisHospitalisation3992.00National schedule of reference costs26
PyelonephritisOutpatient visit94.00
Urine analysisTest7.00
GP appointmentPer patient contact (11.7 minutes)46.00PSSRU24
Dipstick testTest0.40Little et al 25
Risk of pyelonephritis if clinical cure not achieved, %4.00McKinnel et al 9
Risk of hospitalisation if pyelonephritis, %20.00
  • aThis price was provided by Profile Pharma, which is the approved UK distributor of Monuril (fosfomycin trometamol) on behalf of the marketing authorisation holder Zambon. Monuril was launched onto the UK market at this price in August 2016. BNF = British National Formulary. MR = modified release. PSSRU = Personal Social Services Research Unit.