Table 2. Primary outcome risk differences of delays in two or more domains and delays in early development domains, using mother ASQ-3, child age 12 months (total, n = 1957; intervention, n = 1037; control, n = 920). All outcomes analysed at cluster level.
Intervention (clusters, n = 16)Control (clusters, n = 16)Crude intervention-control difference (95% CI); P-valueaAdjusted intervention-control difference (95% CI); P-valuea
Proportion outcome (95% CI)
ECD outcome
Two or more delaysb 0.14 (0.11 to 0.17)0.32 (0.24 to 0.41)-0.18 (-0.27 to -0.10); <0.001-0.17 (-0.26 to -0.09); 0.001
Communication0.18 (0.14 to 0.22)0.28 (0.21 to 0.35)-0.10 (-0.18 to -0.03); 0.011-0.09 (-0.17 to -0.02); 0.018
Gross motor0.08 (0.06 to 0.11)0.22 (0.17 to 0.27)-0.14 (-0.19 to -0.08); <0.001-0.13 (-0.19 to -0.08); <0.001
Fine motor0.11 (0.08 to 0.14)0.24 (0.15 to 0.32)-0.13 (-0.22 to -0.04); 0.007-0.12 (-0.21 to -0.04); 0.009
Problem-solving0.03 (0.02 to 0.05)0.09 (0.06 to 0.13)-0.06 (-0.10 to -0.02); 0.005-0.05 (-0.09 to -0.02); 0.004
Personal-social0.22 (0.19 to 0.25)0.29 (0.22 to 0.36)-0.07 (-0.15 to -0.00); 0.048-0.07 (-0.14 to -0.02); 0.043
  • aData are proportions (95% CI). The analysis is adjusted for clustering and controlled for several covariates (sex of the child, child weight at registration, child height at registration, child age at registration and endline, maternal age, maternal education, number of additional children the mother has, number of additional children aged <5 years, and family structure) by logistic regression analysis.

  • bOverall ICC = 0.14, intervention arm ICC = 0.03 and control arm ICC = 0.12. 25

  • ASQ-3 = Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3. CI = confidence interval. ECD = early child development. ICC =¬†intracluster¬†correlation.