Box 1. The four domains of work in normalisation process theory
Normalisation process theory predicts that for any new way of working to become fully embedded into everyday practice needs continuous work in four areas (domains) of activity:11
DomainDescription of work involved
Sense makingThe new intervention must make sense to the people responsible for implementing it, including that they recognise it as a distinct and different way of working.
EngagementPeople must choose to engage with the new way of working, including those who lead or pioneer the introduction, along with the majority choosing to join.
ActionPeople need the resources to implement the new way of working, whether that be skills, time, or other.
MonitoringPeople must get feedback on the new approach; feedback which encourages them to keep going.